Introduction | Known Problems | Description of Modules | Credits

Welcome to the Ancient Greek Tutorial site of the Department of Classics of the University of California, Berkeley, a project of Professor Donald Mastronarde and the Berkeley Language Center.
©1999-2003 The Regents of the University of California.

This site is made available to all users by the courtesy of the University of California Press. Although much of it is based on a specific textbook for ancient Greek (see under Credits), the tutorials should be helpful to anyone learning ancient Greek from any textbook.

NEWAugust 12, 2003: a new CD-ROM version of this site (CD-ROM v 1.2 of August 2003) is available, for use with Windows or Macintosh computers with a standard browser. The CD version reflects the state of this site as of August 11, 2003, including all the enhancement for use of unicode Greek and better compatibility with the variety of Mac OS X browsers. For ordering information, go to and click on the link for Media Sales, or contact The Berkeley Language Center, University of California, B-40 Dwinelle Hall #2640, Berkeley CA 94720-2640, tel. (510) 642-0767 ext. 29, fax (510) 642-9138. Please note that at this time BLC is not yet able to accept payment by credit card; for the time being, payment has to be made by check or money order in US dollars.

NEWJune 17, 2003: users who are able to input Unicode Greek from their keyboard may now try the English-Greek module in the Unicode input mode. Mac OS X users may use GreekKeys Unicode input with Safari or OmniWeb; Windows 2000 and XP users may use various methods, including the Polytonic Greek input supplied by Microsoft, with Internet Explorer.

June 13, 2003: conversion to unicode of all modules involving complex javascript actions is complete, including now English-Greek (Unicode). Users may now select in the navigation panel at left either modules using unicode Greek for Vocabulary, Verb Drill, Noun Drill, English-Greek, and Paradigms, or versions using GreekKeys-encoded Athenian Font for all of these except Paradigms. For information on designated unicode fonts for Windows and MacOS and recommended browsers, click Vocabulary (Unicode) in panel at left or click here. The text-based version of Paradigms using unicode Greek is a superior alternative to the version using PDFs. The unicode modules invoke the unicode paradigms rather than the PDF versions. At this point, all users who have systems with good unicode capabilities (Windows 2000, Windows XP, Mac OS X 10.2) are recommended to use the unicode versions with the up-to-date browser of their choice.

This site is designed to be viewed in a window of the size 650x450 or larger. In some modules you may need to adjust the font size.

To use this site effectively, you must use a browser capable of displaying frames and of playing QuickTime files (suffix .mov/.MOV), and it must have Javascript enabled. Display of images must be enabled. For best results, use the versions 4.5 or higher of Netscape Communicator/Navigator or of MS Internet Explorer. Many recent browsers come correctly configured by default to use this site. For fuller information on which browsers work with which modules and for instructions on configuring your browser (esp. to hear sounds or see Greek), see the browser instructions. To play the sounds, you should have an up-to-date version of the QuickTime Plug-in in the Plug-ins folder of your browser (or some browsers may work adequately with Windows Media Player instead). Newer (non-Microsoft) browsers may come with the plug-in already present. You may also obtain the QuickTime plug-in by using the installer for the free QuickTime Player from Apple, available for both platforms at

With the completion of the English-Greek module in June 2002, the first (non-unicode) version of the site was completed. In October/November 2002, minor changes were made to enable automatic MacRoman encoding for Netscape 6 and 7 and Mozilla 1 for Mac OS X, so that these browsers may be used just as well as Netscape 4.7. (Further minor changes were added in July 2003 to improve recognition of MacRoman encoding by all Mac browsers.) During the first half of 2003, GreekKeys-based modules and data files were duplicated and modified to use unicode Greek instead. The developer would appreciate hearing what works and what does not work: send e-mail to and be sure to include OS platform and version, and browser name and version number.

Three modules (Vocabulary, Verb Drill, Noun Drill), as well as the optional Dictionary Info capability of the English-Greek module, require a Greek font, while most of the other modules rely on images and will show correct Greek on any computer. The original Paradigms module, however, uses Adobe PDF documents, for which you will need the appropriate helper for your browser or the free Acrobat Reader. Although the English-Greek module uses images, the javascript code uses some characters than cause problems in Netscape for Windows, so the program has been adjusted to omit some items when this browser is detected. For more on correct display of Greek in the modules that require Athenian Greek font, see under KNOWN PROBLEMS or click on the Vocabulary button at left. If your computer and browser can deal with unicode correctly, use the unicode versions of the modules instead of the GreekKeys versions.

Introduction | Known Problems | Description of Modules | Credits


Adjusting the font size

If the choices in the left panel are badly displayed or the drill item is overrunning the space of the frame in which it is shown, it is necessary to adjust (reduce) the font size of the browser display. Look under the View menu for a command that increases or decreases the font size. In some browsers, the command will affect all frames of the browser window at once; in others, you will need to click in a particular frame and then use the font-adjustment command to have effect on that frame.

Pronunciation Guide and Pronunciation Practice

Please see the browser settings instructions if you are having trouble hearing the sounds.

If you have QuickTime installed or recently upgraded your QuickTime and you are not hearing sounds, check to see whether you have two versions of the plug-in present at the same time. Having two versions at the same time may prevent QuickTime from working within the browser.

Loading of sounds over a modem connection may be intolerably slow, if successful at all. Some browsers will open a small player window, and you may be required to click on the play button to hear the sound. Look for a setting that makes the sound play as soon as loaded without an additional click.

The choice to hear both voices will not work if you have a slow connection, and even on a fast connection you may hear only one sound.

Safari 1.0 (v85) for Mac OS X fails to play further sounds as expected after the first sound has been played. It is necessary to use another browser for playing the sounds conveniently until a version without this bug is released.

Principal Parts

Users of Internet Explorer for Windows 4.x or 5.0 may be unable to use the Principal Parts drill effectively because of a bug in IE. The bug has been fixed in IE 5.5 and higher (available at This bug does not affect Netscape for Windows or any browser for MacOS.

When using the Principal Parts Drill with a Netscape browser, please resize your window to the needed size before beginning a drill or as soon as you begin, since resizing during a drill will reset the drill in a Netscape browser.

Vocabulary, Verb Drill, Noun Drill (GreekKeys versions)

These drills require Athenian font for Mac or Windows; on the Mac the Greek will display correctly in most browsers (including those for Mac OS X), but for Windows only IE 4.x and later work. For more information, click the Vocabulary button at left.

The Vocabulary drills use multiple external javascript files and some browsers have some difficulty loading these properly. In Netscape for Mac, the problem is intermittent, and is normally solved by reloading the page. In IE 5.5 for Windows, the workaround inserts alert dialogue commands in the files: as a result, the user needs to dismiss several alerts during the loading process. This does not occur in IE 6 for Windows.

With Netscape 6.2 for Mac, the random Vocabulary drills do not work, although the other three types of drill do. All types work with Netscape 7 and Mozilla 1.

When using the Vocabulary drill, Verb Drill, or Noun Drill with a Netscape browser, please resize your window to the needed size (to see all portions of the main frame) before beginning a drill or as soon as you begin, since resizing during a drill will reset the drill in a Netscape browser.

English-Greek Drill

The GreekKeys version of this drill works with both browsers on both Mac and Windows, but with Netscape for Windows some items are omitted from the drill because Netscape for Windows cannot interpret or display the correct answer. The Dictionary Info button of the GreekKeys version operates under Windows only if the browser is Internet Explorer (and requires the Greek font Athenian); it produces no action in Netscape for Windows. This problem does not occur in the unicode version.

Introduction | Known Problems | Description of Modules | Credits


Pronunciation Guide provides information and examples for the pronunciation of the sounds of ancient Attic Greek.

Pronunciation Practice provides examples of pronunciation of over 100 basic Greek words (taken from the early chapters of the textbook referred to under CREDITS below).

Accentuation Tutorial presents information and examples to help in the understanding and mastery of the accentuation system of ancient Attic Greek.

Accentuation Practice presents interactive exercises to test and develop mastery of the accentuation system of ancient Attic Greek.

Principal Parts presents various drills for principal parts (the full set of principal parts of over 250 verbs in the textbook are available; random drills and drills by alphabetic set and verb type set are also available).

Vocabulary presents over 1000 basic words of Greek vocabulary, with choice of mode of action (study mode or drill mode, Greek to English to English to Greek) and drill by alphabetic and random sets as well as by units.

Verb Drill presents Greek verb forms for identification. There are about 1500 verb forms in the database. In addition to drill by unit (matched to the book, but providing more forms than in the Exercises), drill by random set and drill by sets defined by type of form are available.

Paradigms presents verb paradigms and noun, adjective, and pronoun paradigms.

Noun Drill is a shorthand name for a declensional drill including forms of nouns, adjectives, and pronouns. There are about 900 forms in the database. In addition to drill by unit (matched to the book, but providing more forms than in the Exercises), drill by random set and drill by sets defined by type of form are available.

English-Greek provides drill in composing Greek inflectional forms, using an on-screen keyboard. There are over 800 forms available. Some of the items correspond to similar exercises in the book, but there are also many forms not in the printed exercises. Two modes of drill are available. In the more elementary mode, the user's entry is corrected letter by letter, and it is not possible to go on to the subsequent letter until the current letter is correct. In the more challenging mode, the user enters the whole answer and then asks to be checked; if the answer is wrong, some guidance is given as to the error and the user can try to fix the answer or ask to see the answer. NOTE: if you use Netscape for Windows with the GreekKeys version, some items in this drill will be skipped (those containing alpha with circumflex and alpha with smooth and acute). (For those with Greek unicode input capability, there is now also a unicode version that allows entry of the answer from the keybo

Introduction | Known Problems | Description of Modules | Credits


Some modules prepared with the assistance of Imre Galambos of the Berkeley Language Center. Voices in the Pronunciation Guide and Pronunciation Practice are Donald Mastronarde and Sarah Stroup, recorded by Alexander Prisadsky of the Berkeley Language Center.

Material in this site is based on Donald J. Mastronarde, Introduction to Attic Greek, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1993, and on the software (for MacOS only) Introduction to Attic Greek: An Electronic Workbook, by Donald J. Mastronarde with technical assistance from Jeff Rusch and Ken Lau, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1995 (created with the assistance of the Instructional Technology Program of the University of California, Berkeley)--now obsolete and superseded by this site.

For information about the book, click on the title or contact the press (for U.S. and Canada orders) at 1-800-777-4726, FAX 1-800-999-1958, California-Princeton Fulfillment Services, 1445 Lower Ferry Road, Ewing NJ 08618.

This site was developed on Macintosh computers running OS 8.6-9.2 and OS X, using BBEdit from Barebones Software for html and javascript editing, Microsoft Word 1998 and 2001 with Adobe Acrobat 5.0 for production of PDF paradigms, Adobe Photoshop 5.5 and 7.0 and Adobe ImageReady 2.0 and 7.0 for graphics, and SuperCard 2.5 and 3.6 for extraction and manipulation of data already present in the Electronic Workbook.

Introduction | Known Problems | Description of Modules | Credits

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